Quality Teaching and Learning

Here at Baker you will find Learner-Centered Instruction (LCI) - two lists of tips for teaching: teaching strategies and teaching with technology strategies. Both lists contain detailed descriptions of how to use the strategy, including time, process, uses, some will have variations to the strategy and video or additional information. Click the name of a strategy to see the detailed description or click “show all” to see all descriptions for the list.

The following strategies may serve dual purposes as either an instructional strategy to increase student learning or as formative assessment to check for student understanding.

Instructional Strategies See a strategy you want to implement in your class? Click “Download” to open and print a Word document with the strategy’s details.

The LCI Strategies table can provide a quick introduction to a few of the strategies you will find below: LCI Strategies.

Article Abstract

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Teaching Strategies for a Learner-Centered Classroom

Strategy:                Article Abstract

Time:                       N/A

Intent: Provides active strategies for students to read and analyze articles in a discipline.

Process:                

  • Instructor selects an important article from discipline being studied.
  • Students write a summary or abstract of the article.                         

Uses:

  • Provides students a chance to think critically about research being conducted in their discipline.
  • Students can develop an understanding of research concepts as they relate to their discipline.
  • Students learn how to comprehend and explain a research article.

Variation:

  • Students might be required to find their own articles, pending approval by the instructor, instead of having one provided.
  • Students might find another article that promotes a divergent perspective from the original article, write an abstract, and compare the two views.

Additional Information:

  • Bean J. C. (1996). Engaging Ideas: The professor’s guide to integrating writing, critical thinking, and active learning in the classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishing.

http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470532904.html

 

 

Case Studies

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Teaching Strategies for a Learner-Centered Classroom

Strategy:                Case Studies

Time:                       30-90 minutes

Intent:                    Case studies are narratives, situations, or statements that raise a variety of complex situations and unresolved issues. They allow students to consider situations in the classroom that they might face in the future and thus help bridge the gap between theory and practice.

 Process:               

  • Depending on what you want your students to learn, develop or locate a case study that has the following components: real-world scenario, supporting data and documents, and an open-ended problem.
    • For example: issues related to a marketing problem; a computer security issue; economic impact of joblessness on a community; a hospital ER visit, etc.
  • Divide students into groups and provide a case study that they will discuss.
    • Discussion can be guided by the instructor through a series of written questions. For example: Identify one or two issues the case raises. What possibilities for action are there? What are the consequences of each?
  • The groups are directed to place themselves in the role of the decision maker as they read through the case and identify the problem.
  • Students will examine all sides of the issue and reach a decision or recommendation on a course of action.
  • Groups report out on their courses of action while the instructor guides follow-up discussion on underlying issues, comparing different alternatives.

Uses:

  • Students develop skills in analytical thinking and reflective judgment by reading and discussing complex, real-life scenarios.
  • Case studies move the responsibility for learning from the teacher on to the students, as they move from theory to practical application.
  • Students learn to identify and delineate between critical and extraneous factors and develop realistic solutions to complex problems.
  • Students have the opportunity to learn from one another.

Variation:

  • Use a case study to guide a full class discussion, using a series of written questions you designed to facilitate discussion. If the case study has a real life conclusion, compare the conclusion with the recommendations made during the discussion.

Additional Information:

Classroom Discussion

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Teaching Strategies for a Learner-Centered Classroom

Strategy:                Class Discussion

Time:                       15-20 minutes

Intent: To bring out different points of view or concepts from a learner-centered point of view.

Process:                

  • Create a set of discussion questions you can pose to students.
  • Tell the students what the goal for the discussion is.
  • Ask the question and let the students answer/discuss/debate.

Uses:

  • Encourages students to think critically about course content in a variety of ways.
  • Set questions provide structure to the discussion and keep discussion on track.

Variation:

  • Questions can be supplied by students as part of a previous activity.
  • For more open-ended questions, with two or more possible answers, divide students into groups, assign sides, and conduct a more formal debate to answer the discussion questions.

Additional Information:

  • Whole Group Discussion Pros and Cons

http://712educators.about.com/od/lessonplans/p/discussions.htm

  • Generic Question Stems

http://www.wright.edu/~carole.endres/genericquestions.htm

Compare Contrast

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Strategy:         Comparison and Contrast

Time:               30-90 minutes

Intent:             Comparison means to find similarities between or among different objects, ideas, concepts, or phenomena. Contrast means to find differences between or among different objects, ideas, concepts, or phenomena.

Process:          

  • Provide students with two objects, ideas, concepts, or phenomena so they can compare how they are alike and contrast how they are different.
    • Some examples to compare contrast are wind power and solar power; low fat diet and high protein diet; students’ grade point averages and scores on the MEAP test; Honda Accord and Toyota Camry, etc.
  • In groups, have students discuss the comparisons and contrasts and write down their ideas.
  • Have each group prepare a short presentation for the class which includes the following:
    • An introduction; the comparison and contrast components; and an analysis of the similarities and differences which leads to a convincing conclusion.

Uses:

  • Comparison and contrast is a good way to help your students clarify ideas and sharpen their analytical skills.
  • By focusing students on analyzing pairs of ideas, students’ ability to remember key content is strengthened.
  • Student comprehension is improved by highlighting important details, making abstract ideas more concrete, and reducing the confusion between related concepts.

Variations:

  • Have students use the comparison and contrast activity to write an essay. Use some examples or a class discussion to take students through a process model of what to look at when they compare and contrast an issue. This activity is helpful in getting the students started on their comparison and contrast essay assignment.
  • As a homework assignment, have students compare and contrast differing ideas in the text they read using a Venn diagram.

 

Additional Information:

 Venn diagram example: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/venn.pdf

 

 
 

G:ETL_TeachingStrategies_CompareContrast_4/2012

 

Concept Formation

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Strategy:         Concept Formation

Time:               20-30 minutes

Intent:             The purpose of concept formation as a teaching strategy is to have students examine some objects and think about a method for categorizing objects into concept relevant groupings.

Process:          

  • Divide students into small groups.
  • Give students materials as a listing of items or words.
  • Have students study the material and, through discussion, organize the materials into categories, being sure to provide rationalization as to why some items belong together and others do not.
    • Encourage your students to use their conversational skills, including listening skills and build on what has already been shared.
  • Draw attention to the diverse observations; different groups will have observed different aspects of the same objects.
    • If you expected your students to form a particular concept or category, and they did not, think of why not.  What background knowledge were they lacking or what other materials might have helped them to form the concept or category you wanted them to form?

Uses:

  • The concept formation strategy assists students in developing their own understanding of course content.
  • Students are able to find in depth understanding of items as they organize and classify information because it involves the recognition that some objectives or events belong together and others do not.
  • This teaching strategy is a process in which students learn to sort specific experiences into general rules or classes providing them with the opportunity to explore ideas by making connections and seeing relationships between or among items or ideas.

 

Additional Information:

What is Concept Formation? http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/formation/index.html

Concept Formation

http://teachinghistory.org/teaching-materials/teaching-guides/25184

 

 

G:ETL_TeachingStrategies_ConceptFormation_4/2012

 

Concept Mapping

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Strategy:                Concept Mapping

Time:                       10-20 minutes

Intent:                    Concept mapping is a graphic or visual organizer that helps students generate ideas, demonstrate relationships between concepts, and organize ideas in a meaningful way.

Process:                

  • Identify a main concept and write it in the middle of the board.
  • If you have a large group of students, divide the board in half and have two different groups working on a concept map.
  • Have students identify concepts that are related to the main concept and write them on the board around the main concept.
  • Ask students to draw a line between related concepts and write a verb that shows the relationship of the concepts on the connecting line.
  • Repeat this process connecting new concepts to the related concepts.
  • Throughout this process, encourage discussion about which concepts should be included, which should not, and in what ways they are related.
  • After each group completes their concept maps, have them switch sides and add additional ideas.

Uses:

  • Concept maps assist students in generating and organizing ideas in a visual manner, internalizing strategies for organizing information, and practicing mapping as a strategy.
  • Concept maps are a valuable tool for faculty because they provide information about students’ understanding before proceeding. An instructor can examine how well a topic is understood by observing the sophistication and depth of the concept map.
  • Encourage students to use different colored markers, and draw pictures/visuals that symbolize/support concepts.

Variations:

  • Students can write down concepts related to the main concept on sticky notes. The separate groups can work together to decide how each is placed on the board in relationship to the main concept.
  • This can be done on chart paper in small groups. Have groups post papers around the room and have everyone look at other groups’ work and add additional ideas.
  • Inspiration Software, Inc. – Visual learning tool that inspires students to develop and organize their ideasmapping software http://www.inspiration.com/

 

Additional Information:

 

G:ETL_TeachingStrategies_ConceptMapping_4/2012

Classroom Assessment Technique: Concept Maps: (6:28 minutes) http://www.oncourseworkshop.com/Awareness012.htm

Fishbowl

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Strategy:     Fishbowl

Time:             30-90 minutes

Intent:         Fishbowl is a strategy for discussion in which a small group of students debate or discuss a topic or model processes/strategies while the rest of the class observes from a distance. This method encourages active participation and persuasive reasoning among the debaters, while allowing the observers to see how certain strategies succeed or fail.

Process:

  • Ask a group of 3-5 students to be in the fishbowl by forming a small circle. Have the remaining students form a larger circle around the smaller circle.
    • This activity is most effective when students have had an opportunity to prepare ideas and questions in advance.
    • Provide the discussion topic/process or strategy to be modeled at the end of the previous class, or at the beginning of class and allow a few minutes for students to prepare.
    • Be aware that some students may need to have the fishbowl demonstrated  prior to use in the classroom
  • Provide the following guidelines:
    • Only the smaller inner circle of students will talk.
    • The larger outer circle of students will observe and take notes on the progress of the discussion and smaller inner circle group’s interaction.
    • Though the larger outer circle of students will not speak during the fishbowl discussion, they will have the opportunity to address any issues that arise in the follow-up discussion.
  • Provide the discussion topic /question/process or strategy to all students and ask the small inner circle group to begin their discussion.
  • When the discussion is complete, ask students from the larger outer circle to report out on how they think the discussion went.
    • Examples of questions for the students to consider are
      • What did you hear that surprised you?
      •  What did you observe that contributed to further understanding of the topic or process?
      • What did you learn from this experience?

Uses:      

  • Provides structure for in-depth discussion and provides an opportunity for students to model or observe group processes in a discussion setting.
  • This teaching strategy helps students practice being both contributors and listeners in a discussion. This strategy is especially useful when you want to make sure all students participate in the discussion; when you want to help students reflect on what a “good discussion” looks like; when you want students to consider a variety of perspectives or viewpoints; when you want students to walk through a process together; and when you need a structure for discussing controversial or difficult topics.
  • Fishbowls allow the instructor to see what misconceptions students have and to address them.

                 

Additional Information/Video:

 

G:ETL_TeachingStrategies_Fishbowl_4/2012

     Fishbowl (26 minutes) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sOHZDNYuno4&feature=related

Focused Free Writing

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Teaching Strategies for a Learner-Centered Classroom

Strategy:                Focused Free Writing

Time:                       5-20 minutes

Intent: Can be used if students either have nothing to say or everyone wants to talk. Can also be used to summarize lecture and/or reading by having students summarize main points of lecture, what they have learned, what doesn’t make sense to them, the “muddiest point,” or what questions they have.

 Process:               

  • Instructor assigns a general topic to write about.
  • The assignment might be a reflection on something students just did, read, or learned.
  • The assignment might be anticipating or making predictions about an activity they are about to do.
  • See Writing Across the Curriculum Free Writing Page link below for sample questions/writing prompts.
  • Students write nonstop for a period of time (such as 15 minutes). Don’t worry about revision, punctuation, spelling, grammar, etc.
  • Students turn in writing at the end of the session.

Uses:

  • Reflective writing activities, such as focused free writing, encourage students to be more conscious of the learning experiences they have had.
  • Students think more deeply and can organize their thoughts when putting them on paper.
  • Writing often helps students think more clearly about a given subject.

Variation:

  • This activity may be used to focus students’ attention and encourage them to think about an issue before discussing or learning more about it in class. Students might also use this free writing to think about and express prior knowledge.
  • Give students time to report out on and discuss the thoughts they expressed in their writing. Use this free writing as a springboard to class discussion.

Additional Information:

Guided Journal

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Teaching Strategies for a Learner-Centered Classroom

Strategy:                Guided Journal

Time:                       5-20 minutes

Intent: To encourage students to reflect on a learning experience, becoming more conscious of what was learned.

 Process:               

  • Instructor explains to students the importance of reflecting on learning experiences in order to become conscious of what those experiences have taught them.
  • Students are invited (or required) to keep a journal of their reflections and what they have learned.
  • Students should write in their journals twice a week, recording some of their thoughts and feelings about what they are learning. They should make their entries without regard to spelling, grammar, and punctuation.   
  • Students can focus on some or all of the following:
    • What’s been unclear in what they have learned or what they don’t agree with.
    • How learning experiences connect with their personal lives.
    • How the learning experiences connect with or reflect other things they read, see, or do.
    • What they have observed about themselves or others as a result of the learning experiences.
    • Conclusions they have drawn from the learning experiences.
    • What they would like to do as a result of the learning experiences.
  • Instructor collects, reads, and comments on the journals periodically so that students are held accountable for keeping them and so that there is communication between student and instructor on how students are learning.

Uses:

  • Reflective writing activities, such as guided journals, encourage students to be more conscious of the learning experiences they have had.
  • Students think more deeply and can organize their thoughts when putting them on paper.
  • Writing often helps students think more clearly about a given subject.

Variation:

  • Students might write during class time instead of outside of class.
  • Students might share findings with the whole class or in small groups.
  • Generic Question Stems may be used as a starting point for this activity.

Additional Information:

  • Article: Use of Guided Reflective Journals in Clinical Nursing Courses

http://ctl.laguardia.edu/journal/v4/pdf/InTransit_Fall09_v4_taylor-haslip.pdf

  • Generic Question Stems:

http://www.wright.edu/~carole.endres/genericquestions.htm

Index Card Match

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Strategy:         Index Card Match

Time:               10-30 minutes

Intent:             This activity is used as an ice breaker or to teach concepts, classification characteristics, facts about objects, or review information.

Process:          

  • Create index cards containing concepts, theories, terminology, problems, or questions regarding anything being taught in the class. You will need enough for half of the students in your class.
  • On separate cards, write the definition, answer, or information that corresponds to the item.
  • Combine the two sets of cards and shuffle thoroughly.
  • Give one card to each student. Explain that each card has a matching card.
  • Direct the students to find the student with the matching card and then to sit together without identifying to others what item they have.
  • Have the students quiz the rest of the group on the topic by reading aloud the definition, giving an example of the item, or walking students through the problem.

Uses:

  • Index Card Match engages ALL students, and each individual is accountable to find the matching card. This is an active, fun way to review class material.
  • This strategy builds student confidence as it allows students to pair up and quiz the rest of the class by reading aloud their questions and challenging classmates to tell them the answers. 
  • The physical movement featured can help to energize a tired class.

Variations:

  • You can develop cards that are missing one word out of a sentence while the corresponding card contains the missing word.
  • You can also create an example card with multiple solutions and have the students form groups instead of pairs (i.e. “What is an example of a way to give good customer service?”) and when they quiz the group, they can obtain multiple answers to the question.
  • In groups, you can provide a shuffled deck of words or phrases that outline the stages of a process and have the groups arrange the cards in sequence. Have a whole class discussion on the correct sequence and how students can remember the sequence.

 

Additional Information:

 

G:ETL_TeachingStrategies_IndexCardMatch

http://www.azargrammar.com/assets/advanced/UUEGExpansionActivities/UUEGExp6.pdf

Jigsaw

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Activity:                 Jigsaw

Time:                       30-90 minutes

Intent:                    This is an efficient strategy for helping students master different pieces of information and then immediately teach it to others to reinforce learning.

Process:                

  • The instructor provides a clear division of course content in which different students in each group are responsible for mastering and teaching others.
  • The students will participate in two groups. In group one, they will become the content experts and teach their content to everyone in their second group.
  • Each of the two groups should have four to six students. Four groups might look like the following (based on 16 students):

 

 

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

Group 4

Group A

1A

2A

3A

4A

Group B

1B

2B

3B

4B

Group C

1C

2C

3C

4C

Group D

1D

2D

3D

4D

  • The first group would consist of Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, as indicated by the solid rectangle above.
  • The second group would consist of Groups A, B, C, and D, as indicated by the dotted rectangle above.
  • The first groups, consisting of Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, will review the material and plan how to teach the material to their second group.
    • For example: Group 1–Legislative; Group 2–Executive; Group 3-Judicial; Group 4- U.S. Constitutional Powers granted to the Three Branches of Government.
  • Create a new jigsaw consisting of Groups A, B, C, and D.
  • In the second group, each group member presents the material he/she prepared in the first group and learns the material presented by other group members.
  • The whole class reflects on the groups’ discoveries during a closure activity.

Uses:

  • Helps participants’ master different pieces of information that, when put together, cover a complete topic. Students soon realize that each piece--each student's part--is essential for full understanding of the material.
  • Experienced teachers know that teaching something to others requires an understanding of the subject matter beyond surface learning. As students develop strategies for teaching to their peers, they may discover examples, anecdotes, or analogies that enhance their comprehension.
  • The jigsaw approach can provide a pleasant alternative to lecture for helping students learn conceptual material.

Video:

Dr. Dennis Burin, Baker College of Port Huron, Education and Human Services

 

G:ETL_TeachingStrategies_Jigsaw_4/2012

https://www.baker.edu/departments/etl/2010/AIM/QTL/bakerTube/index.cfm

One Minute Paper

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Strategy:                One-Minute Paper

Time:                       3 minutes  

Intent:                    A one-minute paper is normally completed at the end of a class session. This activity provides real-time feedback regarding what your students comprehend about the ideas presented in a lecture or class discussion. By clarifying information that students may not completely understood, you are able to build stronger comprehension of the course content.

Process:                

  • Identify a question(s) you want students to answer related to a topic or student learning outcome discussed in class. For example:
    • What was the most important point made in class today?
    • What unanswered question(s) do you still have?
    • How does/will _______ relate to your future profession?
    • What can you tell me about _______?
  • Allow students one minute to respond on a sheet of paper or a 3 x 5 card. 
  • Collect student responses.
    • Let students know that you will not be able to discuss every response but that you will address common themes.
    • Review responses prior to the next class session.
    • Based on student responses, you will be able to adjust and clarify any information because you will know what is still unclear.
  • Set aside five to ten minutes at the beginning of your next class session to clarify information for your students.

Uses:

  • Provides you with timely feedback about what your students have learned or what questions are still unanswered.
  • Reinforces learning for students, assists in developing students’ critical thinking skills, and tells you something about your own teaching.
  • Students know you are paying attention to them and to their needs if you begin the next class by clarifying where necessary.

Variation:

  • Ask students to name five significant points that have been made in class that day. By taking time early in the term to learn about and discuss student comprehension, an instructor can relate this to what they hope students will see as the main ideas of the class. Through this process, students can learn how to identify the main ideas in each lecture, which will allow them to reflect on their learning and identify their levels of understanding.

 

Additional Information:

 

G:ETL_TeachingStrategies_OneMinutePaper_4/2012

The One-Minute Paper http://www.oncourseworkshop.com/Awareness012.htm

Pairs Check

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Activity:                 Pairs Check

Time:                       5-20 minutes

Uses:     

Allows students to review work with a peer and provides an opportunity for students to communicate their thinking to students.

Process:                

  • Ask each student to pair up with another student
    • Each pair will have a student A and a student B.
  • Give each pair a set of problems.
  • In pairs, student A will do the first problem explaining the steps to student B, while student B acts as a coach. When the pair agrees on the solution, they move to the next problem.
  • Next, student B does the next problem, explaining the steps, while student A acts as a coach. They agree on the solution.
  • Ask pairs, when finished with two problems, to pair up with another pair of students. Both pairs (4 students) must agree on the solutions to the first two problems.
  • The process is repeated for additional problems.

 

Uses:

  • It is a good way for shyer or more reticent students, in particular, to take the time to express their thoughts and questions.
  • It is low risk for shy or passive students or students who may lack confidence.
  • It gives students the opportunity to verbalize their thought processes while explaining the steps.
  • It allows students to learn from one another.

Variations:

  • Have students do exercises individually before class. One student explains his/her answer on a question to another student, and they discuss it. Then, they reverse roles for the next question. Answers are agreed upon before sharing with the whole team.
  • Teammates help each other understand answers to exercises so that any member of the team may be called upon to answer any one of the questions.

 

Additional Information:

                                    Kagan Strategy: Pairs Check

                                    http://naeaworkspace.org/presentations/9.Pairs%20Check.pdf

 

 
 

G:ETL_TeachingStrategies_PairsCheck_4/2012

 

Pass a Problem

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Teaching Strategies for a Learner-Centered Classroom

Strategy:                Pass a Problem

Time:                    20-60 minutes (depending on the number of groups allowed to review each problem)

Intent:  Identify and solve a problem related to course content.

Process:                

  • Divide students into small groups.
  • Have each group spend up to 10 minutes identifying a problem (or you can give them a problem to solve).
  • Have each group of students brainstorm and write down their solutions to the problem. Allow up to 10 minutes for this.
  • Have the groups pass their problems /solutions to another group for review and then the second group can add to the original solutions.
  • Continue until all groups have had a chance to see/solve each problem.
  • Have the group that generated the problem initially review all solutions and either pick the best one or create a new one that synthesizes two or more of the solutions.

Uses:

  • As an example of problem-based learning, this is a great way for students to approach specific issues or problems in the discipline in which they are studying.
  • All members of the class are engaged in the task and are encouraged to work cooperatively with several different members of the class.

Variation:

  • You can also do this activity by posting flip chart papers on the walls around the room (one per problem) and have the groups rotate through each problem.
  • This activity can also be used in mathematics or similar courses, in which groups of students work together to solve mathematical equations. Each group then evaluates the other groups’ answers and the process they followed to solve the equation.

Additional Information:

  • Link to a great variation of this strategy found near the bottom of this page:

http://etc.usf.edu/broward/mod4/module4.html

Pro/Con Grid

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Strategy:         Pro/Con Grid

Time:               Dependent upon the complexity of the issue

Intent:             Students’ Pro/Con Grids provide the instructor with an overview of the depth and breadth of students’ knowledge and demonstrate students’ ability to analyze data. This type of assignment will help identify any misconceptions students might have about the content.

Process:          

  • Select a decision, judgment, dilemma, or issue that does not have a definitive “right” answer.
    • Pick a topic that is directly related to Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs) and students can explain, analyze, and justify their responses in multiple ways.
  • Write a prompt that will act as a trigger for students to build pros and cons in relationship to the issue or dilemma.
    • To ensure that the pros and cons are more comparable, make sure to indicate a specific point of view that should be adopted.
  • Let the students know how many pros and cons to list and whether you want words, phrases, or complete sentences.
  • Indicate how many pros and cons are expected.

Uses:

  • This type of activity helps students develop the ability to weigh competing factors and forces them to look at both sides of an argument or position even when their own beliefs might be set on one side of an issue.
  • This activity provides an excellent way to introduce a controversial issue connected with your course material as students are required to look at both sides of an issue.

Variation:

  • Select a perspective or role and ask your students to do a pro/con list for both sides of the issue.
  • Have students take opposing sides for pro/cons. Once lists have been made, have students switch sides and defend the opposite viewpoint.
  • List pros and cons briefly and quickly; later, after the Pro and Con Grid has been assessed and feedback given, ask students to their statements with evidence and analysis.

 

 

G:ETL_TeachingStrategies_ProConGrid_4/2012

Additional Information: Pro & Con Grid  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1bRCBRqtkUI

Question Creation

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Teaching Strategies for a Learner-Centered Classroom

Strategy:                Question Creation

Time:                       5-20 minutes

Intent: To have students develop a set of questions related to class content or a problem.

Process:                

  • Have students brainstorm possible questions related to course content.
  • Have students select 2-3 best questions and explain why each question is a good question.

Uses:

  • Encourages students to think critically about course content.
  • Can be used to generate potential questions for projects, exams, checks for understanding, etc.

Variation:

  • Students can write questions on flip chart pages and post them around the room.  This is especially useful if other students are expected to provide answers.
  • Questions can be answered by other students as part of a larger assignment or class discussion.
  • Alternatively, instructor can answer questions posed by students as part of the instruction.

Additional Information:

  • Suggested use of this activity with a news article:

http://www.waygook.org/index.php?topic=24225.0

  • Generic Question Stems

http://www.wright.edu/~carole.endres/genericquestions.htm

Silent Socratic Dialog

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Strategy:                Silent Socratic Dialog

Time:                       30-45 minutes

Intent:                    Silent Socratic Dialog is a silent form of inquiry and debate between individuals with opposing viewpoints based on writing responses and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking to clarify ideas. As it may not always be easy to listen effectively when someone is talking, reading a partner’s response may be a more efficient method to “listen.”

Process:                

  • Ask each student to pair up with another student.
  • Explain the process (write it on the board or project via overhead):
    • There will be NO talking and the only communication (or “dialog”) will be written.
  • Writing begins with an open-ended question that the instructor will pose.
    • For example "Should moral considerations enter into the conduct of a war?”
    • The students will have five minutes to write a response to the question.
  • After five minutes, have students switch papers with their partners.
    • Each student will read his/her partner’s response and write a question in reference to the response.
    • Return the paper to the original writer. Each student will read the question written by his/her partner.
  • Repeat the process (response, question) two more times.
  • Each student will write a final thought on his/her partner’s paper.

(The pattern is Question, Response; Question, Response; Question, Response; Question, Response; Final Thought.)

Uses:     

  • Promotes thoughtful questioning.  Students must have an understanding of their partners’ responses to write a relevant, thought-provoking question.
  • Allows students who are not comfortable speaking up in class to share their thoughts, opinions, etc., via silent discussion.
  • Promotes individual accountability – Each student must participate in discussion with his/her partner.
  • Requires potentially deeper understanding as writing may provide an opportunity for a more in-depth thought process than speaking. 

Variation:

  • This activity can be used as a guideline for classroom discussion, or Socratic dialogue, in which the instructor provides a well-formulated question that requires personal responses from students. These responses elicit further questions and so on.

 

Additional Information/Video:

Video (to be edited) - Tim Martin, Baker College of Cadillac, Dean of Business

 

G:ETL_TeachingStrategies_SilentSocraticDialog_4/2012

 

The Silent Socratic Dialogue http://www.oncourseworkshop.com/Learning010.htm

Think Write Pair Share

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Strategy:         Think/Write/Pair/Share

Time:               10-15 minutes

Intent:             This is a good way for you and your students to verify what has been learned by comparing lecture notes, doing a quiz review, checking for comprehension on reading assignments, and responding to discussion questions.

Process:          

  • Pose a question or problem to your students such as:
    • Summarize in your own words __________.
    • What is the difference between __________ and __________?
    • How does __________ affect __________?
    • What is another way to look at __________?
    • If you apply __________ how does it affect __________?
  • Give students a couple of minutes to reflect and write a response to the question or problem posed.
  • Have each student pair with another student to compare/contrast answers.
  • If the answers are not in agreement, have students explain to each other how they reached their answers, and decide on a mutual response.
  • Ask a few students to share their own answers, their partners’ answers, or the discussion they had with each other.

Uses:

  • Allows students time to formulate an opinion on a topic and then share it with another student before sharing with the entire class.
  • Class size is not an obstacle because this activity can be used with any size class to get students involved with the material.
  • Activity is a good “warm-up” to use during earlier class sessions if you plan to increase class discussions as the term progresses.
  • Even if their answers/responses are incorrect, students are still learning as they discuss the problems with a partner and come up with the correct responses.

Variation:

  • A shorter version of this - Think/Pair/Share (minus the individual writing) can be used if time is limited.

 

Additional Information:

                        Think-Pair-Share (1:30 minutes)

 

G:ETL_TeachingStrategies_ThinkWritePairShare_4/2012

                        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YGCyk_QaC0I&feature=related

The Baker College System
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